DPI scaling factors
So screens today are quite high resolution. For example, I have a 2560x1440 resolution screen as my main viewport to the digital world. While lots of pixels can be used to make very sharp graphics, they also present a problem: old applications are still drawing letters that are 16 pixels high, which are very small on these screens! There are at least two solutions to this:
Stop working in pixels, and start working in physical units instead when making graphics, and let the underlying graphics systems handle the conversion into pixels. This way, one string of text is the same size on every screen, but might not be what we want: desktop screens are viewed from a further distance than phones, which would make text either too big on phones, or too small on desktops.
Keep working in pixels, and keep thinking in terms of “this text should be printed at a font size of 16 pixels,” but secretly multiply all values by some factor depending on how high resolution your screen is, and how far people are generally going to look at the screen. So, you might use a multiplier of 2x for a 4K desktop screen, or even 3x for a 2K phone screen. I’ll be calling this multiplier the “DPI scaling factor” from now on.
It should seem relatively obvious that we have gone the second route. People are doing everything on phones nowadays, so whatever system we come up with has to fit that need with minimal developer effort. I kind of wish we had gone the first route, as it would’ve annihilated any hopes of even trying to think in pixels, which might’ve led us to some vector-graphics-based paradise where every graphic is smooth and well antialiased. Sadly, this is not the case, and everyone is still rendering bitmaps that may or may not be the same resolution as the picture that ends up on the screen of the user.
Based on my experience, it seems that the current way to get nice looking sprites on screens of differing DPIs, is by having manually scaled versions of every asset for every possible DPI scaling factor. This is a bit bothersome, but it looks great! The artists can make sure every pixel is just right, and they’ll end up rendered on the user’s screen exactly how they intended. It would be really bothersome to write all graphics layouts for each DPI scaling factor however, but that can thankfully be generalized (sort of): just work in some “logical” pixel coordinate space, which gets converted into physical pixels later on.
Dun dun dunn.
The rock in my shoe that inspired this blog
Turns out, logical pixels aren’t the savior they’re made up to be. Well, they are, to a point. As long as your DPI scaling factor is an integer, you’ll be fine. Every logical pixel will correspond to some specific physical pixel, and no shenanigans will happen that could ruin your artist’s pixel-perfect asset. But! Some systems can set the DPI scaling to a fractional number, like Windows. I have set my Windows to scale everything by 1.25x, because that makes text comfortable to read on my 1440p screen, while still giving me the working space I want on a desktop screen. But this presents a problem, which I will demonstrate via three examples.
Sprite with no scaling at (2, 2)
This is the normal, easy situation. The artist has drawn a 8x8 sprite,
which I then render at the logical coordinate
(2, 2), at a logical
8x8. Because there is no scaling, this results in a
nice, crisp sprite rendered at
(2, 2), with a resolution of
displaying every pixel of the sprite in all their glory.
1.25x scaled sprite at (0, 0)
The artist has now drawn me a 1.25x version of a sprite for my
game. The unscaled version of the sprite is
8x8, and so the 1.25x
10x10. I render it at the logical coordinates
with the logical size
8x8 to test out that it looks good on my 1.25x
scaled screen, and voilà: I get a
10x10 (which is
8x8 scaled by
1.25x) sprite rendered at
(0, 0) (which is
(0, 0) scaled by
1.25x), which looks great, pixel-perfect!
1.25x scaled sprite at (10, 10)
Now that I have the 1.25x sprite, I decide to playtest my game a
bit. The player ends up at the logical coordinates
(10, 10), but
wait! The resolution of the sprite is still correct, just as it was in
the previous example, but what about the coordinates? Well,
scaled by 1.25x is
What happens now depends on how you handle fractional physical pixels. In my case, rendering with OpenGL and using floats to describe the pixel coordinates, you end up with a mushed sprite that’s sampling the texture in all the wrong spots, resulting in a sprite with a bad 1px blur. But is that okay? Is that what Microsoft intended to have be displayed when the coordinates don’t match up? Or should I round the coordinates, and occasionally end up getting weird 1px gaps between objects that are really just 0.01 pixels apart, enough to make them round to the different side? I don’t really know, and as such I ended up adding this as a parameter to my quad-drawing function in the library I’m writing. On one hand, the blur could be fine, you’re on a high DPI screen anyways, so you probably won’t mind a very slight blur. But on the other hand, if you’re working with very fine details, that blur might cause havoc! I’d be interested to hear if you have come up with a rigorous solution to this, heard of one, or just have opinions about this.
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